The invention of test tube baby has produced a challenge to the system of conventional reproduction practice. The upgradation in IVF treatment is also very phenomenal. The development in every field of human life is tremendous, especially when it comes to “birth,”.
Then too, Robert Edwards was not out of his actions. He updated this invention with the latest innovations. And as a result, we have a series of better treatments: IVF, ICSI, TESA, Surrogacy, etc.
Yet we are half-baked surprised, yet the tradition of new innovations has not been stopped. And as one and only reason for the same, we can tell that: Even though science has made tremendous progress, the relationship between the embryo and the wall of the uterus has not been clear to us.
That means that science has not reached the proper understanding of the factors – due to which the embryo establishes – implants with the uterus wall. So in the IVF treatment method, even with the best treatment, we do not get 100 % success. To overcome this limitation and to increase the success ratio, innovations are done in IVF treatment. The new and advanced treatment method, which we are going to discuss is its gift.
ICSI: Before knowing about the latest and in-practice treatment methods for test tube baby, we should have the recapitulation on one of the essential and well-established treatment methods of infertility.
This is also well-heard in the reference of IVF is ICSI. The complete full form of ICSI is – “Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection”. ICSI is a type of IVF treatment. Here, the male sperm is inserted into the ovum with a microscopic injection.
Here, it is very clear that the sperms are directly inserted into the ovum – which means the sperms do not have to be dependent on their energy (to penetrate). So, pregnancy can be conceived by even weak and less motile sperms. Thus, very few sperms ( 4 to 5 ) are needed. With this, sperms can be obtained from the testes of a person who has significantly less sperm count. With this type of IVF treatment, couples can get their own child. This method is also known as a TESA.
When ICSI was not discovered, there was no substitutes for getting sperms other than IVF treatment i.e., from the donors of those with no sperms (azoospermia) or significantly fewer sperms ( oligospermia). Thus, the ICSI method has revolutionized male infertility.
Here, we have to think clearly that even though there is a revolution with advanced machines, a high level of skill and experience is needed to achieve it.
Let us know about the absolute new methods regarding IVF Treatment – “oven- fresh,” after knowing up to this about ICSI.
- Laser Hatching: The ovum is fertilized with the sperms and results in an embryo. The embryo inside the ovum breaks the outer membrane of the ovum and is implanted in the uterus – this is known as Hatching. Sometimes, the surrounding wall of the ovum is very thick and stiff. In this case, the embryo cannot come out and cannot implant with the uterus. And if there is no impregnation, how the child……….? In these circumstances, the ovum membrane is being made thinner with laser energy – guided by the computer, at one side so the embryo can have connivance to come out from that place and be implanted. If there is a frequent failure in IVF, or there is IVF at the elder age, Laser hatching is needed most
- PGD (Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis): Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis means: to diagnose the chromosomes before the implantation/establishment/adherence of the embryo. This method is used to prevent genetic disorders like Down’s syndrome, thalassemia major, muscular dystrophy, etc., in the embryo and to prevent childbirth with physical defects.
The method is somewhat like this: In a laboratory-developed 3-day-old embryo, there are 8 to 10 cells. For the diagnosis, only one cell is aspired by breaking the outer layer with the laser.
You might think – how it is possible to know about would be diseases from a single cell? But friends, the impossible-like matter is also likely with the profuse development in the field of Science and Technology. And yes, this single cell is tested in the laboratory for genetic disorders. If it contains a genetic condition, it is not put in the uterus. 7 to 8 embryos are prepared by the embryologist, every embryo is tested likewise, and only 2 to 3 disease-free embryos are placed in the uterus. And thus, the success ratio increases.
There is also the other reason for PGD – sometimes, if the implanted embryo has a defect, it causes the failure of IVF. In this case, with the help of only the disease-free embryo putting, the success ratio increases.
IMSI – Super ICSI: IMSI is a new form of ICSI with some modifications. That is why it is known as Super ICSI. The complete form of IMSI is Intra-Cytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection. With the help of the microscope used in ICSI treatment, the picture of the male semen is seen 200 times bigger. But, here, the defected sperms are not founded immediately (at once). While with the help of an advanced microscope in the IMSI method, 6000 X bigger picture is available. With this huge picture, it can be discriminate the good sperms and damaged or defected sperms from the semen, easily. So only the excellent quality sperms are selected from the semen. Thus, by entering quality having sperms in the ovum, the probability of a well-developed embryo and healthy child increases significantly.
Thus, IMSI treatment is the latest step in male fertility. Likewise, IMSI and IVM treatment would be a great revolution in female infertility. In IVM, the ova in the developing stage (immature ova) are taken out in certain circumstances. These immature ova are held in the culture medium for 24 to 48 hours in the laboratory. Then hormone quality is added to them and made mature. Then these mature ova are made fertilized with ICSI and are transformed into the embryo. Now, likewise IVF, it is put/ implanted in the embryo.
When a woman suffers from uterus cancer, the doctor might suggest chemotherapy or radiation therapy. During this therapy, it might be needed to remove the ovaries of the woman. In these cases, the ova are taken previously, and screening of the excellent quality ova is done – they are frozen. Then at the time of treatment, with the help of IVM, that lady can become pregnant.
The women over the age of 35 years, whose ova are weakened, the quantity of ova has been decreased in abundance, can also go for the same type of treatment. According to the 19th June 2011 report, there is only 400 birth that occurred by this method in the world. Thus, this is the latest treatment. It is available in foreign countries – yet not in India, but there are sure chances of it.
In addition to the above-mentioned treatments, there are the possibilities to discover new techniques through which, during IVF, we would be able to develop high-quality embryos, so just with one embryo implantation, the child can be obtained. Consequently, the problems of twins or triplet birth, as a result of 2 to 3 implantations – today’s IVF Treatment, can be eradicated completely.
Besides this, there are the possibilities of inventing many result-oriented treatment methods. But, as in India, it is very necessary to clarify that the machines for the use of these techniques would be highly advanced and it would be extremely expensive for ordinary Indian couples. In addition to this, it might be one and half decades to come to establish these methods in India.
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